Ensuring sufficient food supplies is one of the most basic challenges facing any human society.
Why did humans start cooking their food? Food historians, archaeologists, and paleontolgists do not have exact an answer due to the age of the evidence. They do, however, have theories. While roasting over an open fire appears to be the first method, boiling was not far behind.
Whether or not it came as a gastronomic revelation can only be guessed at, but since heat helps to release protein and carbohydrate as well as break down fibre, cooking increases the nutritive value of many foods and makes edible some that would otherwise be inedible. Whatever the case, by all the laws of probability roasting must have been the first method used, its discovery accidental.
The concept of roast meat could scarcely have existed without knowledge of cooking, nor the concept of cooking without knowledge of roast meat.
A litter of Chinese piglets, some stray sparks from the fire, a dwelling reduced to ashes, and unfamiliar but interesting smell, a crisp and delectable assault on the taste buds Taken back a few millennia and relocated in Europe this would translate into a piece of mammoth, venison or something of the sort falling in the campfire and having to be left there until the flames died down.
But however palatable a sizzling steak in ice-age conditions, the shrinkage that resuts from direct roasting would scarcely recommend itself to the hard-worked hunter, so that a natural next step, for tough roots Although the accidental discovery of roasting would have been perfectly feasible in the primitive world, boiling was a more sophisticated proposition.
Clothing of distinction for men of style and grit: bench-made, rugged horsehide flight and motorcycle jackets, USN pea coats and N-1 jackets, and selvage-denim jeans. Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food, or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods. Food Processing, Technologies and Advances in Food Preservation Food processing is the conversion of raw ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms. Food processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by the consumer.
New York] p. This book contains much more information on early cooking techniques than can be paraphrased here. Your librarian will be happy to help you find a copy.
The use of fire, extended to food preparation, resulted in a great increas of plant food supply. All of the major domesticated plant foods, such as wheat, barley, rice, millet, rye, and potatoes, require cooking before they are suitable for human consumption.
In fact, in a raw state, many plants contain toxic or indigestible substances or antinutrients.
But after cooking, many of these undesirable substances are deactivated, neutralized, reduced, or released; and starch and other nutrients in the plants are rendered absorbable by the digestive tract. Thus, the use of fire to cook plant foods doubtless encouraged the domsetication of these foods and, thus, was a vitally important factor in human cultural advancement.
We can only base conjectures on the customs of existing primitive peoples. Bones and walnut or hazelnut shells have been found on excavated sites, but there is no means of knowing whether they are the remains of cooked meals, the debris of fires lit for heat, or even the remnants of incincerated raw waste matter An oven could be as simple as a hole in the ground, or a covering of heated stones.
However, improved textures and flavours may not have been the reason fire was first controlled.
People could have employed fire to keep wild beasts at bay, to trap them, to scare them out or to create open grassland, where tender shoots and leaves would be more accessible. People have long used fire to harden wooden weapons, and to keep warm at night.
However, she says, we transform food on a different level. The human species prepares its food by heat She proposes that the culinary act distinguishes the human species, and is not just a symbol of, but a factor in, that very humanisation Cooking is highly intentional Discovery is attributed to happy accident.
Boiling was no accident. It was a carefully considered process achieved with tools crafted specifically for the purpose.Food Timeline: history notes--Mesopotamia through Shakespeare. FoodTimeline library Food Timeline FAQs: Advances in technology eventually resulted in the ability (again, probably a matter of trial and error) to modify potentially harmful foods into consumable staples.
The long, cold winters had made food preservation a priority, and the. Timeline of agriculture and food technology This article needs attention from an expert in Agriculture or History. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the Refrigeration for domestic and commercial drink preservation introduced in the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively.
Pasteurization, sterilization and drying are the traditional methods used for food preservation. These methods pose problems like loss of nutrients and vitamins, enzymatic browning, prolonged processing time, fruit juice sedimentation and microbial spoilage.
The 20 Most Significant Inventions in the History of Food and Drink. Megan Garber.
This is a food cooking method that employs prolonged, and represents one of the major advances in. – Refrigeration for domestic and commercial food preservation introduced in the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively.
- The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, made it possible to produce ammonia, and thereby fertilize, on an industrial scale.
Intensive family preservation services (IFPS) is a program model that has been disseminated widely throughout the country, and has received federal recognition and monetary support since the early s.