Paris, France, 26 August ; d.
See Article History Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, born August 26,Paris, France—died May 8,Parisprominent French chemist and leading figure in the 18th-century chemical revolution who developed an experimentally based theory of the chemical reactivity of oxygen and coauthored the modern system for naming chemical substances.
Having also served as a leading financier and public administrator before the French Revolutionhe was executed with other financiers during the revolutionary terror. Early life and education Lavoisier was the first child and only son of a wealthy bourgeois family living in Paris. As a youth he exhibited an unusual studiousness and concern for the public good.
Since the Paris law faculty made few demands on its students, Lavoisier was able to spend much of his three years as a law student attending public and private lectures on chemistry and physics and working under the tutelage of leading naturalists.
Upon completing his legal studies, Lavoisier, like his father and his maternal grandfather before him, was admitted to the elite Order of Barristers, whose members presented cases before the High Court Parlement of Paris.
Pneumatic chemistry The chemistry Lavoisier studied as a student was not a subject particularly noted for conceptual clarity or theoretical rigour. Although chemical writings contained considerable information about the substances chemists studied, little agreement existed upon the precise composition of chemical elements or between explanations of changes in composition.
Many natural philosophers still viewed the four elements of Greek natural philosophy—earth, air, fire, and water—as the primary substances of all matter. They hoped that by first identifying the properties of simple substances they would then be able to construct theories to explain the properties of compounds.
It was previously claimed that the elements were distinguishable by certain physical properties: Perhaps, Hales suggested, air was really just a vapour like steam, and its spring, rather than being an essential property of the element, was created by heat. In the s the Scottish chemist Joseph Black demonstrated experimentally that the air fixed in certain reactions is chemically different from common air.
Black wanted to know why slaked quicklime hydrated calcium oxide was neutralized when exposed to the atmosphere. Thus, pneumatic chemistry was a lively subject at the time Lavoisier became interested in a particular set of problems that involved air: Conservation of mass The assertion that mass is conserved in chemical reactions was an assumption of Enlightenment investigators rather than a discovery revealed by their experiments.
Lavoisier believed that matter was neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactionsand in his experiments he sought to demonstrate that this belief was not violated.
Still he had difficulty proving that his view was universally valid. His insistence that chemists accepted this assumption as a law was part of his larger program for raising chemistry to the investigative standards and causal explanation found in contemporary experimental physics.
While other chemists were also looking for conservation principles capable of explaining chemical reactions, Lavoisier was particularly intent on collecting and weighing all the substances involved in the reactions he studied. His success in the many elaborate experiments he conducted was in large part due to his independent wealth, which enabled him to have expensive apparatus built to his design, and to his ability to recruit and direct talented research associates.
Chemists had long recognized that burning, like breathing, required air, and they also knew that iron rusts only upon exposure to air. Noting that burning gives off light and heat, that warm-blooded animals breathe, and that ores are turned into metals in a furnace, they concluded that fire was the key causal element behind these chemical reactions.
The Enlightenment German chemist Georg Ernst Stahl provided a well-regarded explanation of these phenomena. Although plausible, this theory raised a number of problems for those who wished to explain chemical reactions in terms of substances that could be isolated and measured.
In the early stages of his research Lavoisier regarded the phlogiston theory as a useful hypothesisbut he sought ways either to solidify its firm experimental foundation or to replace it with an experimentally sound theory of combustion.
In the end his theory of oxygenation replaced the phlogiston hypothesis, but it took Lavoisier many years and considerable help from others to reach this goal. The General Farm was a partnership that had a contract with the royal government to collect certain sales and excise taxes, such as those on salt and tobacco.
At the beginning of each financial cycle the Tax Farmers lent money to the government and were subsequently reimbursed through tax collections.
Lavoisier spent considerable time as a Tax Farmer, and he was richly rewarded for his efforts. Three years after joining the General Farm, Lavoisier married Marie Anne Paulze, the year-old daughter of a member of the Farm with whom he worked.Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Carl also spelled Karl, (born December 9, , Stralsund, Pomerania [now in Germany]—died May 21, , Köping, Sweden), German Swedish chemist who independently discovered oxygen, chlorine, and manganese..
Life. Scheele, the son of a German merchant, was born in a part of Germany that was under Swedish jurisdiction.
In Scheele was apprenticed to a . Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, a meticulous experimenter, revolutionized chemistry. He established the law of conservation of mass, determined that combustion and respiration are caused by chemical reactions with what he named “oxygen,” and helped systematize chemical nomenclature, among many other accomplishments.
Historians view Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier as the father of modern chemistry. Lavoisier was also an eminent physiologist. Lavoisier’s work covered geology, street lighting and chemistry where he studied the impact of rusting.
Antoine Lavoisier was executed by guillotine on May 8 th Intro duction.
Thomas Kuhn coined the modern definition of the word “paradigm” in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, published in A paradigm, according to Kuhn's definition, is a conceptual model that explains a set of scientific observations, which creates a framework to fit the observations.
I like the product. But my copy has gaps of white spaces at the top of the film where the black bar is, and the film is a bit jumpy in this area, which is a bit annoying. Lavoisier’s work in framing the principles of modern chemistry led future generations to regard him as a founder of the science.
Contents. Beliefs in Chemistry at Lavoisier’s Time; Combustion and the Attack on Phlogiston ; The Life of .