When examining the vast literature on critical thinking, various definitions of critical thinking emerge.
Indeed, in many ways, critical thinking has become synonymous with higher education. Yet we have not found evidence that colleges or universities teach critical-thinking skills with any success. This study has been criticized for relying too much on the CLA, but that overlooks a much more fundamental issue underscored by a growing body of research: Those of us who work in higher education have assumed that we know what critical thinking is -- how could we not?
The question remains, however, can we actually teach students that skill? The Thinking Skills Debate The debate over whether or not general thinking skills, or GTS, actually exist is well traveled within a relatively small circle of researchers and thinkers, but virtually unknown outside of it.
Given our belief in the importance of critical thinking and our assumption that students learn it, I would argue that this debate is one of the most overlooked and misunderstood issues in higher education today.
As the name implies, GTS are those skills that supposedly transfer from one discipline to another. A key question in the debate, therefore, is whether thinking skills can exist independently from discipline-specific content in a meaningful way such that transfer is possible.
Willingham, a professor of psychology at the University of Virginia; and, to a certain degree, Moore himself have defended the specifists' position. As educational researcher Stephen P. Norris wrote in Teaching Critical Thinking: If anything, scientific evidence suggests that human mental abilities are content and context bound, and highly influenced by the complexity of the problems being addressed.
In Critical Thinking and Languagehe explored how critical thinking is understood and taught by faculty from a range of disciplines at an Australian university. While he outlined certain relations among disciplines, he found nothing to suggest that the complexity of those relations could be reduced to a core set of cognitive skills.
Again, given the rising cost of education and the increasing accessibility of information, instructors and professors must move beyond being deliverers of content to remain relevant.
Yet, what to do if the research is telling us that teaching GTS is extremely difficult, if not impossible? Moving Forward If higher education is to come to terms with its promise of producing critical thinkers, it must take some specific measures.
First, no matter what they teach, professors must become much more familiar with the thinking skills debates occurring in the cognitive science, educational psychology and philosophical domains.
In fact, if institutions disseminated essential readings in this area as a sort of primer to get people started, it would be time and money well spent. With a wider appreciation of the debate, faculty members must then begin to think about thinking within the context of their own disciplines.
It does not make sense to impose some set of critical-thinking skills onto a subject area independent of the content being taught. Rather, professors of literature, science, psychology, economics and so on must reflect on how they think as scholars and researchers within their own disciplines -- and then explicitly teach those cognitive processes to students.
That metaphor leads us to look for a packaged set of thinking skills that apply with equal relevancy to virtually any situation or domain, when, while still debatable, it seems increasingly clear that no such skills exist. Moreover, the metaphor of overlap -- like a Venn diagram -- makes the differences between sets of thinking skills as instructional as the similarities.
So, as thinking skills become explicitly taught in different subjects, the student, proceeding through college, will gather overlapping investigative experiences based on his or her efforts to employ said thinking skills in various courses.
The student can then manage those overlapping experiences as a kind of portfolio that shows him or her how content is processed and problems are solved.
If a core set of thinking skills can be distilled from this portfolio, great. If not, the student still has a rich picture of how different ways of thinking overlap, even if they are always tethered to a specific domain or problem. Ultimately, we in higher education must recognize that money is on the table.
We have gambled on critical thinking, and if we are not to lose our shirts on this bet, we can no longer expect students to magically become critical thinkers.
Instead, we must move toward a pedagogy that foregrounds the explicit teaching of thinking skills. Bio John Schlueter is an instructor of English at St.Students produce three short essays and three short speeches, which are graded on pertinence, relevance, plausibility, Standardized Critical Thinking Assessment Tools 5 References Ennis, Robert H., “An Annotated List of Critical Thinking Tests,” Revised June, Assessment of Critical Thinking in Pharmacy Students Robert M.
Cisneros, PhD Campbell University School of Pharmacy Submitted May 22, ; accepted August 8, ; published July 10, Objective. To determine whether changes occur over 1 academic year in pharmacy students’ critical thinking skills and disposition to think critically.
Methods. The recommendations made here are determined by The Critical Thinking Co.™ and are not endorsed or certified by the author or publisher of each test. While the recommended items will help prepare students to master the skills tested, they do not reflect the actual test items on any given test.
Brief classroom assessment instruments, such as asking students to write down the clearest and most confusing points for them in a class session, can be very helpful for collecting a lot of information quickly about student thinking and understanding.
compared with traditional assessment methods. Am J Pharm Ed ;75(6):Article • Correlation of OSCE vs. traditional examinations in UK undergraduate MSc pharmacy in a cohort of 39 students. • Conclusions: – Strong performance on traditional assessments does not reliably predict performance on clinical assessments.
To determine whether changes occur over 1 academic year in pharmacy students' critical thinking skills and disposition to think critically. First, second, third, and fourth-year pharmacy students.