Instead of measuring the speed of the ball after it is batted, BBCOR measures the "bounciness" of the ball and bat, or the "trampoline" effect.
Russell Today is The contents of this page were last modified on July 8, This document, as are all of the articles on my website, is an evolving document. I will continue to modify this document as necessary to correct mistakes, when I think of better ways to explain something, or when I think of new things to add.
As I explained in my introductory article about bat performanceBatted-Ball Speed BBS is the ultimate performance criteria for bats as they are used in the field.
In another article I discussed how the ASA regulates Batted-Ball Speed BBS for slow-pitch softball bats directly by measuring the efficiency of the bat-ball collision in the laboratory, and then using field measurements of ball pitch speeds and bat swing speeds - as dependent on moment-of-inertia - to directly predict batted-ball speeds in the field.
Right up front I want to make something clear: In fact, the BESR standard does not even measure batted-ball speed at all. What the standard does measure is the ratio of the ball exit speed to the combined speeds of the pitched ball and swung bat.
In fact, the mph hit ball speed usually associated with the BESR standard is a calculation based on a measured BESR for a specific inch wood bat, an assumed bat swing speed of mph and an assumed pitched-ball speed of mph.
It may be a representative BBS value for wood bats, but this mph value does not represent the maximum hit-ball speed for a wood bat.
In order to leave most MLB ballparks, a baseball has to be hit at speeds around mph, something that MLB players do with wood bats rather frequently. In the only field study of wood and aluminum bats to date, a wood bat was found to hit balls with a maximum batted-ball speed of mph, and an average batted-ball speed of The BBS along with the launch angle, ball spin, and aerodynamic drag forces is what determines how far a hit ball will travel.
Starting with basic physics conservation laws conservation of linear and angular momentum, conservation of energy, and the definition of coefficient-of-restitution it is possible to derive an equation for the batted-ball speed as: Thus, the name Ball-Exit-Speed-Ratio.
You design a device that swings a bat at a moving ball so that bat speed and ball speed are the same right before impactmeasure the speeds of bat and ball prior to the collision, then measure the speed with which the ball leaves the bat, and compute the ratio from equation 5.
Once the BESR is known, it is possible to calculate a prediction of the batted-ball speed BBS for a bat in the field by simply plugging in the laboratory value for the BESR into equation 3 along with a value for the pitched ball speed vball and the bat swing speed vbat.
Faster bat speeds also result in faster batted-ball speeds, with a change in bat speed having a greater effect on the BBS than a similar change in pitched-ball speed. This last fact is very important. Consider two bats that have the same BESR as measured in the lab, but which can be swung with significantly different speeds.
The bat which can be swung faster will produce a higher batted-ball speed in the field if the BESR value is the same for both bats.
The one important factor that BESR cannot measure is the manner in which bat weight and moment-of-inertia affect bat speed. This decision is based on field studies which show a direct correlation between the speed with which a baseball bat can be swung and the moment-of-inertia of the bat.
Three field studies in particular have focused on the relationship between bat speed an moment-of-inertia for adult baseball bats, and all three studies concluded that bat speed is higher for bats with lower moments-of-inertia and lower for bats with larger moments-of-inertia.
Alan Nathan has analyzed the bat swing speed data from the Fleisig and Crisco-Greenwald field studies and has fit the data with formulas that can be used to calculate bat speed. First we must convert angular velocity to linear speed at the impact point. Assuming an impact at the sweet spot 6-inches from the barrel end of the bat or inches from the knobwe can simply multiply the angular velocity by inches to obtain the linear velocity at the sweet spot.
This gives a resulting bat speed at the impact location with units of inches per second. If we multiply this value by 0.
The more tricky conversion we might also have to do involves the value of Iknob.
The moment-of-inertia of a bat is usually measured with respect to a pivot point on the handle, 6-inches from the knob. But, the swing speed equations use the moment-of-inertia about a pivot point at the knob.
If you know the mass of the bat and the balance point location of center-of-gravityyou can use the parallel axis theorem to calculate Iknob from the MOI at the 6-inch point. As an example, a typical 34" wood bat has a moment of inertia of 11, oz-in2 measured with respect to a pivot at the 6-inch point on the handle.
The linear bat speed at the sweet spot is then calculated to be: For the calculations I describe below, I used an average of the two bat-swing equations.
Assuming all other things remain the same: Faster pitched-ball speeds result in higher BBS. The BESR test is conducted with an assumed pitched-ball speed of mph. Bat swing speed depends on the moment-of-inertia MOI of a bat, with larger MOI bats being more difficult to swing quickly.Online shopping from a great selection at Sports & Outdoors Store.
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