The Complete Poetry, compiled and presented by Dione Venables. The magazine was published and distributed to the readers before being broadcast by the BBC. Issue five has not been recovered and was consequently excluded from W. West's collection of BBC transcripts.
Chess, that inscrutably challenging game, with more possible game states than there are atoms in the Universe, was no longer a canvas for individual human achievement.
Why was the loss so upsetting to so many? Not because chess is complicated, per se — calculating differential equations is complicated, and we are happy to cede the work to computers — but because chess is creative. Chess was a foil, a plane of endeavour, for storytellers as diverse as Vladimir Nabokov and Satyajit Ray, and we celebrate its grandmasters as remarkable synthesisers of logic and creativity.
It was particularly galling, then, for Kasparov to lose to a machine based not on its creativity but its efficiency at analysing billions of possible moves. One might argue that its victory not only knocked humanity down a peg but demonstrated that chess itself is not, or does not have to be, the aesthetic space we imagined it.
And not just against them: The humans maintain strategic control of the game while automating the memorisation and basic calculation on which great chess depends. As Kasparov described an early such match: Having a computer partner also meant never having to worry about making a tactical blunder.
The computer could project the consequences of Essays about colours move we considered, pointing out possible outcomes and countermoves we might otherwise have missed. With that taken care of for us, we could concentrate on strategic planning instead of spending so much time on calculations.
Human creativity was even more paramount under these conditions. Freestyle teams can easily defeat both top grandmasters and chess programs, and some of the best centaur teams are made up of amateur players who have created better processes for combining human and machine intelligence.
These centaur games are beautiful. The quality of play is higher, the noise of simple human errors reduced, making space for the kind of pure contest that the platonic solids and geometries of chess idealise. We are all centaurs now, our aesthetics continuously enhanced by computation.
Every photograph I take on my smartphone is silently improved by algorithms the second after I take it. Every document autocorrected, every digital file optimised. Musicians complain about the death of competence in the wake of Auto-Tunejust as they did in the wake of the synthesiser in the s.
It is difficult to think of a medium where creative practice has not been thoroughly transformed by computation and an attendant series of optimisations. The most profound changes have occurred in fields such as photography, where the technical knowledge required to produce competent photographs has been almost entirely eclipsed by creative automation.
Even the immediacy of live performance gets bracketed by code through social media and the screens we watch while recording events that transpire right before our eyes.
In fact, the shift might be much more profound for the audience than the artist. Being a critic or consumer of art now relies on a deep web of computational filters and guides, from the Google and Wikipedia searches we use to learn about the world to the recommendation systems queueing up books, songs and movies for us.
We rely on computational systems for our essential aesthetic vocabulary, learning what is good and beautiful through a prism of five-star rating systems and social-media endorsements, all closely watched over by algorithmic critics of loving grace.
We shape our aesthetic expectations around these feedback loops, finding channels and lists that seem to match our interests and then following them.
Google has already introduced a system that proposes responses to your emails based on millions of prior conversations, and the company Narrative Science has been creating algorithmically generated journalism for years. Today, we experience art in collaboration with these algorithms.
How can we disentangle the book critic, say, from the highly personalised algorithms managing her notes, communications, browsing history and filtered feeds on Facebook and Instagram? She exemplifies what philosophers call the extended mind, meaning that her memories, thoughts and perceptions extend beyond her body to algorithmically mediated objects, databases and networks.
Without this externalised thinking apparatus, she is not the same critic she would be otherwise. This is true not just in pragmatic terms, in that she might not be nearly as good or efficient at her work, but in biophysical terms as well.Colours, such as green, white are used to find ones true feelings; while others use colours to hide their true persona.
Colour symbolism is used to convey a deeper message to the readers and help us understand the characters true colours.
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