You have really illustrated their differences. I also agree that the utilitarian calculus is far more time consuming than determining if an action is moral by looking at the intentions behind it.
Euthanasia denotes any action that terminates the life of an individual in intense and debilitating medical state. Mill is one of the philosophers who described the moral theory of utilitarianism, an ethical view that can help an individual in making decisions.
On the other hand, Kant postulated his theory, Kantianism that offers ethical guidelines that help people in making ethical decisions. This paper will focus Kantianism and act utilitarianism essay evaluating a euthanasia case of Brophy, using utilitarianism and Kantianism.
Brophy is a patient in persistent vegetative state, whose wife expressed the intent of carrying out passive euthanasia.
Using the views from the two philosophers, this paper will examine whether euthanasia is an ethically right choice. He made it evident that in his view, duty, good will, and moral worth were critical aspects in determining of the action taken.
He opined that duty was the only reason that should motivate an ethical action Abel According to him, human beings are moral agents that should use reasoning while making ethical decisions.
In his view, one could only settle on morally worth decisions when guided by goodwill and duty. Kant embarked on defining the universal laws that determine the duty of making morally worthy decisions. He formulated two different versions of the categorical imperative.
The first version was the universal law that defined that humans must act in a manner that qualifies categorization as universal.
The second version of the categorical imperative highlighted that it was critical for humans to consider humanity as the end and refrain from regarding it as merely a means Kant describes certain maxims that were critical as guidelines for making ethical decisions.
These principles were the product and reason and were namely duty, goodwill, and categorical imperative. Therefore, the will determining why an individual carries out a certain action cannot receive underestimation in deontology.
He advanced his views to highlight that the only way in which an individual could exhibit good will was through taking action out of duty.
Acting in fulfillment of duty refers to actions motivated by good will and not feelings, emotions or self-interest. Duty and good will are moral principles that complement each other. Kant also highlighted that actions motivated by duty exhibited moral worth.
He placed emphasis on the need for actions to depict a sense of moral worth Moreover, Kant explained the value of dignity towards human beings. He emphasized that it is critical for people to act in ways that exhibit the dignity for others.
Utilitarianism This moral theory is the work of philosopher Mill. The central principle of the ethical view is that actions taken should produce happiness and pleasure to a large number of people The moral theory emphasizes on the value of making considerations of the potential consequences of actions.
Mill opined that an ethical decision is one that translated to a measure of happiness and pleasure to people. If more people found pleasure and happiness in the decision, then he considered the specific action more ethical. According to this moral theory, decisions should have a basis on the benefits they can offer to the society This principle implies that judgment of actions occurs according to the measure and proportion that they cause happiness or its reverse state Mill opined that highly ethical actions cause a high level of happiness while less ethical decisions are those causing people feelings that contrast to the state of happiness.
Happiness in this context also denotes the lack of pain. Such a state should offer pleasure to the people. According to this principle, circumstances, events, and actions that exhibit a high level of pleasure become the preferred options while those with low levels of pleasure are not preferable Moreover, Mill highlighted that both quantity and quality of pleasure were critical in the choice of moral action taken.
As mentioned, actions likely to yield increased level of pleasure were preferable. Better still, an individual would choose an action that would yield high quality pleasure This translates to the fact that pleasure has both quantitative and qualitative ratings.
The principle of quality versus the quantity of pleasure proves highly influential in the choice of actions that an individual can take. Analysis of the Brophy Case According to the case highlighted, it becomes evident that Brophy would give in to voluntary euthanasia because he prefers immediate death than long periods of suffering His medical condition is chronic because he has been on the persistent vegetative support for over a year, without exhibition of any visible change despite all the medical interventions.
He had communicated his support for euthanasia in reference to the cases that he had observed before his current predicament.Utilitarianism claims that an act that produces a pleasurable consequence (increase of happiness and decrease in pain) is a moral act and a bad act (decrease of .
Kantianism and Utilitarianism are two theories that attempt to answer the moral nature of human beings. Immanuel Kant's moral system is based on a belief that reason is the final authority for morality.4/4(1).
Utilitarianism and Kantianism Essay Act utilitarianism essentially states that everyone should perform that act which will bring about the greatest good for everyone affected by the act.
Fundamentally, this theory requires that each individual assess the situation and determine which act would bring about the greatest amount of good.
Kantianism and utilitarianism have different ways for determining whether an act we do is right or wrong. According to Kant, we should look at our maxims, or intentions, of the particular action.
Kantians believe “human life is valuable because humans are the bearers of rational life” (O’Neill ). Feb 06, · bentham, ethics, final paper, kant, kantian, morality, philosophy, Utilitarianism Last semester, I was assigned to write a final paper on Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics for my Philosophy class.
I had to study and evaluate the work of two philosophers named Jeremy Bentham and Immanuel Kant. Utilitarianism would only see the act as morally allowable if the consequences of that action yield maximum utility and happiness for all involved. Kantian moral theory values the universal law and maxims as its guide for how people should act in a given situation.