Earlier studies identified women as the leaders of linguistic changes that that spread from above the level of public consciousness and involved new prestige forms emanating from the upper ranks of the social strata. In contrast, men were found to lead changes in vernacular forms spreading below the level of public awareness. Section 1 will introduce the subject of gender and language variation, while section 2 will outline the major sociolinguistic paradigms of gender and language change.
These include tag questionsquestion intonationand "weak" directivesamong others see also Speech practices associated with genderbelow. Its Nature and Development, and Origin. These include the prospect of language change based on social and gendered opportunity, lexical and phonological differences, and the idea of genderlects and gender roles influence language.
Dominance is an approach whereby the female sex is seen as the subordinate group whose difference in style of speech results from male supremacy and also possibly an effect of patriarchy. This results in a primarily male-centered language.
This then results in the varying communicative styles of men and women. Deborah Tannen is a major advocate of this position. Comparing conversational goals, she argues that men tend to use a "report style", aiming to communicate factual information, whereas women more often use a "rapport style", which is more concerned with building and maintaining relationships.
Instead of speech falling into a natural gendered category, the dynamic nature and multiple factors of an interaction help a socially appropriate gendered construct.
As such, West and Zimmerman describe these constructs as " doing gender " instead of the speech itself necessarily being classified in a particular category. Scholars including Tannen and others argue that differences are pervasive across media, including face-to-face conversation,   written essays of primary school children,  email,  and even toilet graffiti.
Cameron notes that throughout the history of scholarship on language and gender male-associated forms have been seen as the unmarked norm from which the female deviates. On the other hand, Cameron argues that what the difference approach labels as different ways of using or understanding language are actually displays of differential power.
But the research evidence does not support the claims made by Tannen and others about the nature, the causes, and the prevalence of male-female miscommunication. This emotional labor is commonly associated with the feminine domain, and the call center service workers are also typically females.
However, the male workers in this call center do not orient to the covertly gendered meanings when they are tasked to perform this emotional labor. One explanation for this, is that people accommodate their language towards the style of the person they are interacting with.
Thus, in a mixed-gender group, gender differences tend to be less pronounced.
This essay will consider the origins of contemporary notions of ‘gender’ within the social sciences and argue that it is relational, concerning both men and women, and that it is a primary factor in organising social lives and argue that gender is a key factor to the access of power, as is ethnicity and class, and that these too are. Gender-specific Speech in Disney Animated Movies - Language as an Indicator of Female Inferiority and Politeness? - Lisa Henigin - Bachelor Thesis - English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics - Publish your bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay. Gender Through Disney's Eyes. Gender is an important topic in today's society. Most people feel pressure to conform to certain gender stereotypes without really understanding what they are and even without being aware of their influence on our perceptions.
A similarly important observation is that this accommodation is usually towards the language style, not the gender of the person. That is, a polite and empathic male will tend to be accommodated to on the basis of their being polite and empathic, rather than their being male.
For example, the pronouns "he" and "she" directly indexes "male" and "female". However, there can be a secondary relationship between linguistic resources and gender where the linguistic resources can index certain acts, activities or stances which then indirectly index gender.
In other words, these linguistic resources help constitute gender. Examples include the Japanese particles "wa" and "ze".
The former directly index delicate intensity, which then indirectly indexes the female "voice" while the latter directly indexes coarse intensity, which then indirectly indexes the male "voice".
Women are generally believed to speak a better "language" than men do. This is a constant misconception, but scholars believe that no gender speaks a better language, but that each gender instead speaks its own unique language. They analyzed randomly selected interactive dialogue taken once from every ten minutes of their tapes.
See subordinating conjunctions Grammatical Errors Utterances which are viewed incorrect by a prescriptivist grammar Polite Forms Utterances that express some degree of politeness The following tended to be higher in frequency for males: On the other hand, the following were found to occur more for females: In addition, female characters had longer sentences on average.
Minimal responses[ edit ] One of the ways in which the communicative behaviors of men and women differ is in their use of minimal responses, i. For example, "minimal responses appearing "throughout streams of talk", such as "mm" or "yeah", may only function to display active listening and interest and are not always signs of "support work", as Fishman claims.
They can—as more detailed analysis of minimal responses show—signal understanding, demonstrate agreement, indicate scepticism or a critical attitude, demand clarification or show surprise. Questions[ edit ] Men and women differ in their use of questions in conversations.Disney's rhetoric regarding gender in Cinderella presents women as inferior, for they need a man, and little else, to be successful in life.
Ariel, in Disney's production The Little Mermaid, is known to be more independent and assertive than previous princesses, but the film still adheres to many stereotypical gender roles (England ).
construction of gender and gender beliefs may differ from culture to culture and from group to group, so findings in the area of the English language cannot be used to generalise about other cultures and other social environments (Hellinger and .
Language was a particular feature and target of Women’s feminist movements in the ‘60s and ‘70s. “The very semantics of the language reflects [women’s] condition.
Gender Through Disney's Eyes. Gender is an important topic in today's society. Most people feel pressure to conform to certain gender stereotypes without really understanding what they are and even without being aware of their influence on our perceptions.
Essay, term paper, research paper: Gender See all college papers and term papers on Gender Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the . Gender-specific Speech in Disney Animated Movies - Language as an Indicator of Female Inferiority and Politeness?
- Lisa Henigin - Bachelor Thesis - English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics - Publish your bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay.