Adapted from Kirby and Appleyard, It is considerably thicker and generally lighter green than the sheath above or the stem below. The node of the stem is below the joint and its position is marked by a slight constriction of the stem.
Onions contribute savoury flavour to dishes without contributing significant caloric content. Allergic reactions may not occur when eating cooked onions, possibly due to the denaturing of the proteins from cooking. Freshly cut onions often cause a stinging sensation in the eyes of people nearby, and often uncontrollable tears.
This is caused by the release of a volatile gas, syn-propanethial-S-oxidewhich stimulates nerves in the eye. These break down amino acid sulfoxides and generate sulfenic acids. A specific sulfenic acid, 1-propenesulfenic acid, is rapidly acted on by a second enzyme, the lacrimatory factor synthase, producing the syn-propanethial-S-oxide.
Lacrimal glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant. The more often one chops onions, the less one experiences eye irritation.
Inthe New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research created "no tears" onions by genetic modification to prevent the synthesis of lachrymatory factor synthase in onions.
Sandy loams are good as they are low in sulphur, while clayey soils usually have a high sulphur content and produce pungent bulbs. Onions require a high level of nutrients in the soil. Phosphorus is often present in sufficient quantities, but may be applied before planting because of its low level of availability in cold soils.
Nitrogen and potash can be applied at regular intervals during the growing season, the last application of nitrogen being at least four weeks before harvesting.
Most traditional European onions are referred to as "long-day" onions, producing bulbs only after 14 hours or more of daylight occurs.
Southern European and North African varieties are often known as "intermediate-day" types, requiring only 12—13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Finally, "short-day" onions, which have been developed in more recent times, are planted in mild-winter areas in the autumn and form bulbs in the early spring, and require only 11—12 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation.
Onion seeds are short-lived and fresh seeds germinate better. In suitable climates, certain cultivars can be sown in late summer and autumn to overwinter in the ground and produce early crops the following year. These bulbs are planted the following spring and grow into mature bulbs later in the year.
The plants are shallow-rooted and do not need a great deal of water when established. Bulbing usually takes place after 12 to 18 weeks. The bulbs can be gathered when needed to eat fresh, but if they will be kept in storage, they should be harvested after the leaves have died back naturally. In dry weather, they can be left on the surface of the soil for a few days to dry out properly, then they can be placed in nets, roped into strings, or laid in layers in shallow boxes.
They should be stored in a well-ventilated, cool place such as a shed. The most serious for the home gardener are likely to be the onion fly, stem and bulb eelworm, white rot, and neck rot. Diseases affecting the foliage include rust and smut, downy mildew, and white tip disease.
The bulbs may be affected by splitting, white rot, and neck rot. Shanking is a condition in which the central leaves turn yellow and the inner part of the bulb collapses into an unpleasant-smelling slime.
Most of these disorders are best treated by removing and burning affected plants.Good nutrition is especially important during this stage of your life when there is so much happening: independent living, career development, travel, establishing relationships, babies and families.
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Lifecycle Nutrition. Nutrition For Your Life Stage; Nutrition For Your Life Stage. Family Life Nutrition Tips. Make the most of family meal times with these handy nutrition hints. Read about nutrition and the key stages of a baby's development.
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Nutrition For Toddlers. Nutritious foods and tips for feeding your toddler. Botany of the wheat plant E.J.M. Kirby. A wide diversity of topics, ranging from the fine structure of cells to the gross morphology of the shoot, will be discussed in this chapter, providing a brief summary of the large amount of accumulated knowledge that exists on the botany of wheat.
What's New and Beneficial About Soybeans. We recognize that soybean consumption is a matter of much current debate.
There has been much written about it on the Internet, with claims that eating soybeans can endanger your health. Zinc is an essential mineral involved in regulating many enzymes.
It is an antioxidant and immune-boosting supplement. Zinc is most commonly supplemented to reduce the frequency of illness and to support optimal levels of testosterone.