Food products often involve the general marketing approaches and techniques applied the marketing of other kinds of products and services. In food marketing, topics such as test marketing, segmentation, positioning, branding, targeting, consumer research, and market entry strategy, for example, are highly relevant.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Since then, many universities have established centres for research into the sociology of sports. Prominent among the topics investigated by sports sociologists are socialization into and through sports; sports and national identity; globalization and sports processes; elite sports systems; labour migration and elite sports; mass media and the rise of professional sports; commercialization of sports; violence and sports; gender and sports; race, ethnicityand sports; and human performance and the use of drugs.
Socialization into and through sports Several questions are central to understanding the socialization into sports. How exactly are young people socialized to become involved in sports and to stay involved in them? Why do some continue to participate actively in sports throughout their lives while others are content to watch?
Different questions arise when one asks how people are changed as a result of their socialization into sports.
Why do some people find their primary identity as athletes, and what happens when injury, age, or loss of motivation brings their athletic careers to an end?
The socialization process Socialization is the process by which people become familiar with and adapt themselves to the interpersonal relationships of their social world. Through socialization, people develop ideas about themselves and about those with whom they interact.
Inevitably, socialization is a two-way process that affects everyone to a greater or lesser degree. Playgamescontests, and sports have crucial and quite specific roles in the general socialization process.
The sense of self is not natural; it develops through childhood socialization as a result of role-playing. Influenced by George Herbert Mead and Jean Piaget among others, sociologists have identified two stages in childhood socialization: Children learn the difference between their real selves and the parts they are playing.
As they grow older, children shift from noncompetitive games such as peekaboo and playing house to contests such as footraces and ball games. In the game stage more accurately, the stage of competitive gameschildren encounter stricter rules and regulations.
They develop a reflexive conception of the self and its position in relation to others, and they learn to see themselves as others see them. They become self-conscious social actors.
In most premodern societies, boys were encouraged by their families to compete in sports, which were presumed to prepare them for their adult roles as warriors and workers, while girls were encouraged to continue to play noncompetitive games that prepared them for motherhood.
In modern societies, boys and young men continue to outnumber girls and young women involved in sports competition, but the gender gap has narrowed considerably. This has been true for the private clubs that organize European sports as well as for the interscholastic and intercollegiate teams that are a prominent feature of the North American sports landscape.
The role of socializer into sports has been played by many actors, among them parents, older siblings, peers, teachers, coaches, and elite athletes appearing in the mass media. In the course of the 20th century, parents and older siblings became relatively less influential while coaches and elite athletes became more influential.
In modern as in premodern societies, there is a tendency for sports participation to decline with age because of both the added responsibilities and time demands of paid employment and of parenthood and the physical decline of the body. Early socialization into sports is the best predictor of lifelong involvement in sports.
Those who disliked sports as children are unlikely to become involved as adults, while those who loved sports are likely to participate throughout their lives.
Elite athletes may be an exception to this rule. If pushed as children to compete nationally and internationally, they are liable to experience burnout and to abandon their sports careers before reaching adulthood.
The effects of sports socialization, however, are not always what the socializers expect. They are in fact quite controversial. From the midth to the early 21st century, sports were alleged to train young athletes in self-discipline, teamwork, leadership, and other highly prized traits and behaviours.
Empirical research has shown that involvement in sports can also inculcate a socially destructive desire to win at all costs. Depending on the values of the socializing agents, sports can encourage young people to play fairly or to cheat. The evidence suggests that the propensity to cheat increases with age and the level of competition.
Some of the feelings expressed are anticipatory, prior to performing.Demand Curves.. Total demand for a product results from adding the demand for each consumer. Some consumers will have high levels of demand, or low elasticity, and others will be highly price elastic.
Team sports were played in middle-class schools and through a variety of amateur and professional teams. Many sports, such as soccer (football), had originated in traditional games but now gained standardized rules, increasing specialization among players, and the impassioned record-keeping appropriate to an industrial age.
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