Request Report Methodology Globally, the membrane technology market is witnessing significant growth due to increasing research and development and production in pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and life sciences industries. There has been a substantial rise in the number of membrane technology applications, including separation and purification of drug components, in pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and life sciences industries. Thus, rise in pharmaceutical production and increasing number of membrane technology applications worldwide are driving growth of membrane technology in pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and life sciences industries. In addition, stringent regulations and usage of single-use disposable technique are playing a major role in the growth of the membrane technology market.
Previous air-pollution health-effects studies have underlined the importance of capturing spatial variability, particularly in urban areas Logue et al.
Accurate assessment of human exposures to atmospheric pollution requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of pollutants over cities on scales of m Chow et al. The improved resolution is expected not only to reduce exposure-assessment error but generally to result in larger health-effects estimates.
For example, Jerrett et al. Nevertheless, although it is generally true that reductions in exposure measurement error can lead to improvements in health-effect estimates, it is not always true, and it depends on the specifics of the measurement error and the true exposure distributions Szpiro et al.
See discussion in Chapter 5. The goal of a truly population-based exposure registry may be less feasible in the United States than in countries that have national health systems and population registries, at least in the foreseeable future. However, health-maintenance organizations HMOs may provide unique opportunities to build large-scale databases that, when combined with biomarkers of exposure assayed from routinely collected biospecimens and systematically collected exposure information from clinic visits or questionnairescould form the basis of long-term cohort studies.
Outcome data reflecting clinic visits, hospitalizations, diagnoses, medication prescriptions, and mortality would be routinely available through followup data collection.
Although not strictly random, the coverage of the larger HMOs is extensive enough to represent a broad spectrum of the population.
Exposure science could also take advantage of data obtained on individuals and populations through market-based and product-use research to improve questions on exposures in epidemiologic studies.
Two major hazard evaluation programs, the U. But exposure context is for more than selection of chemicals for test- Page 58 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy.
The National Academies Press. The biology of systems perturbed by exposures to stressors is highly sensitive to the magnitude of exposure Slikker et al. Mechanistic studies and hazard assessments conducted at concentrations that far exceed actual human exposures may produce results that are misleading because the observed effects are not likely to occur at lower doses or because low-dose effects may be masked by more overt toxicity at high doses.
The availability of more exposure data could guide dose concentrations in toxicity studies. The interdependence of toxicology and exposure science is recognized in these two communities, but exposure science is typically underemphasized as a principle in toxicology. The committee responsible for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy NRC recognized the need for better integration and use of exposure science in toxicity assessment and called for its greater use in each step of the vision.
The report spurred the rapid development of toxicity testing, in particular in in vitro, high-throughput methods, but its use of exposure science has seen little growth over the same period.
That is unfortunate in light of the fundamental interdependence of the two fields, including the importance of exposure information in the design and interpretation of toxicity testing Cohen Hubal et al.Report Overview Market Research Report on Global and Chinese DMPAT Industry, is a professional and in-depth market survey on Global and Chinese DMPAT industry.
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